América LatinaCrónicasFeaturedTú, por ejemplo

¡CUIDADO CON LOS ECONOMISTAS! Salvemos la ecología… Dr. Mario H. Concha Vergara, PhD – Docente – Chile

Tribuna infomarruecos.ma

 

El investigador ecológico Joan Martínez Alier, afirma que hay muchos economistas; estos abundan, pero lo que no abundan son los economistas ecológicos. Uno de los primeros en defender la economía ecologista y el sentido común en la economía fue el Premio Nobel Alternativo de economía, el chileno  Arthur Manfred Max Neef[1]. ( +1919).

En la Hipótesis del Umbral, Max Neef plantea  “la idea de que a partir de determinado punto del desarrollo económico, la calidad de vida comienza a disminuir”.​ De acuerdo a esta teoría “todo crecimiento cuantitativo debería derivar en un desarrollo cualitativo”. Para él “desarrollo” debe definirse como la “liberación de posibilidades creativas” de todos los integrantes de una sociedad, concepto independiente del de crecimiento económico, sin ser una condición para este último.

El Ex presidente de la International Society for Ecological Economics,  Joan Martínez Alier, es uno de los más reputados expertos en ese campo desarrollado por Max Neef, consagrando su vida académica a estudiar la relación entre los desafíos medioambientales y la economía, contribuyendo activamente a la promoción del concepto de justicia medioambiental.

La economía ecológica, o la economía del sentido común, o la economía de la gente, es sin duda una de las grandes críticas a la economía actual que está hecha por econometristas[2] desde sus mullidos sillones. Es una crítica de la ciencia económica habitual. Dos cuestiones muy importantes son que hay que ver la economía físicamente, contar los flujos de energía y de materiales y no darle importancia al PIB, que mezcla lo que es producción con lo que es destrucción. Max Neef decía que por ejemplo un gran terremoto como los producidos en Chile aumentaba el PIB pues se partía de una producción cero.

Cuando el PIB crece e destruye biodiversidad al usarse el  carbón, petróleo y gas que producen exceso de dióxido de carbono y por tanto cambio climático. Los daños de estos hechos no se restan del PIB. El cambio climático es adverso al crecimiento real de la economía; todo crecimiento del PIB se transforma en una verdadera farsa.

La economía y ecología siempre se han llevado  mal y al parecer a los econometristas no les interesa así como no les interesa a muchos académicos porque cuando la economía industrial crece, los ecosistemas se destruyen.

Joan Martínez Alier  dice: “me considero y soy un economista ecológico, uno de los fundadores de la Sociedad Internacional de Economía Ecológica en 1990”, autor ya en 1987 de un libro con el título « Economía Ecológica » y cofundador de las revistas Ecological Economics y Ecología Política en 1990. Él considera, al igual como lo planteara desde los 70’ Max Neef que el modelo económico imperante en la actualidad está agudizando enormemente el cambio climático y el deterioro del medio ambiente, lo cual, además, ha traído como consecuencia la desaparición de algunas especies vivientes.

Una de las maneras de subsanar esta barbaridad económica es cambiando la manera de medir lo que hacemos y quitando importancia a lo que digan los economistas, (econometristas) que tienen demasiado poder en la política. Pues cuando la economía industrial crece, los ecosistemas se destruyen. Se crea lo que llamamos un estado de entropía[3], es decir de un estado de orden a uno de desorden. Esto sucede porque continuamente se buscan nuevas materias primas en las fronteras de la extracción, desde la Amazonía al Ártico. Ya sea petróleo, carbón, gas natural, mineral de hierro, cobre, soja, eucaliptos para pasta de papel, lo que sea, todo lo cual destruye el medioambiente pues este ya está saturado…Además, el carbón y el petróleo no son reciclables pues una vez que se utilizan (que se  queman) ya no pueden volver a usarse. Por eso los economistas ecológicos apuntan a que la economía industrial no es circular sino entrópica.

Lo anterior, obviamente, significa que la marcha de la economía industrial, pierde siempre energía y materiales y eso está ocurriendo desde hace 200 años pues se terminó la navegación a vela, por ejemplo, el uso de las carretas, etcétera. La energía entrópica que usamos desde hace 200 años está destruyendo al planeta pero, el que no usemos la energía entrópica no quieres decir que queremos volver a las velas o las carretas.

Significa que cuando la economía industrial está en marcha, pierde inevitablemente energía y materiales y eso ocurre porque la energía que usamos desde hace 200 años -petróleo, carbón y gas natural- sólo se puede usar una vez. La energía de estos energéticos se disipan una vez usados y ya no hay posibilidad de recuperación.

Martínez Allier explica que el  aluminio, por ejemplo, se obtiene a través de una roca llamada bauxita a la que se bombardea con mucha electricidad. El aluminio se utiliza entre otras cosas para las latas de conserva, de las que se reciclan sólo entre un 10-20%, y en otros materiales la cifra es muy inferior. Los materiales de construcción que se emplean para edificar apenas se reciclan. « Los materiales de construcción que se emplean para edificar apenas se reciclan »

El efecto invernadero se produce por quemar combustibles fósiles como el carbón, gas, o petróleo, pues esto produce dióxido de carbono, lo que significa que estamos poniendo tanto CO2 en el ambiente que nos estamos auto envenenando. Estamos poniendo tanto CO2 en la atmósfera que este se está acumulando y produce el llamado efecto invernadero

El desacuerdo  que sucede  entre los economistas ecológicos y los economistas que yo denomino econometristas, se debe a que los economistas actúan como si no supieran nada de esto. Hablan por ejemplo de crecimiento económico, cuando disminuye la cantidad de petróleo y de gas, aumenta el efecto invernadero y se pierde biodiversidad.

Los conflictos ambientales más acuciantes son aquellos (ignorados por los economistas y políticos) en donde existen poblaciones más vulnerables, población indígena, gente pobre que carece de poder político y de representatividad ante los gobernantes para defenderse de las empresas extractoras. Lo peor ha sido la explotación de petróleo por parte de Chevron-Texaco en Ecuador y Venezuela,  la de Shell en el Delta del Níger, en Nigeria. y cientos y cientos de casos parecidos como la explotación en Argelia por parte de la British Petroleum, Total y otras..

Lamentablemente los conflictos ambientales irán en aumento y peor aún, las grandes empresas dedicadas a la explotación de los recursos naturales no entienden que están en los límites de la extracción y contaminación, llegando incluso al cromen como lo han hecho en Brasil y Sudáfrica con algunos ecologistas. Hay cientos de víctimas ecologistas cada año, es posible que el número no vaya a bajar. Por eso, hay que hacer más visibles estos conflictos, y así tal vez ayudamos a que en algunos países disminuya la represión contra los ecologistas.

E-mail: [email protected]

[1]  Ver: MAX NEEF PREMIO NOBEL ALTERNATIVO DE ECONOMÍA Dr. Mario H. Concha Vergara, PhD. Director (Primer presidente) del Centro de Estudios del Magreb Para las Américas) en https://infomarruecos.ma/max-neef-premio-nobel-alternativo-de-economia-dr-mario-h-concha  vergara-ph-d-director-primer-presidente-del-centro-de-estudios-del-magreb-para-las-americas/

[2] La econometría como la unión de la estadística, las matemáticas y la teoría económica. Por otro lado, es un sistema que se olvida de los humanos al considerarlo solo números.

[3] La entropía es una palabra de origen griego que los físicos empezaron a utilizar alrededor de 1870 para probar que la energía no se recicla.

Afficher plus

Articles similaires

844 Comentario

  1. I was pretty pleased to find this website. I want to to thank you for your time for this wonderful read!! I definitely really liked every little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to check out new things in your website.

  2. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this blog. I am hoping the same high-grade blog post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own blog now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a good example of it.

  3. Hi there! This post couldn’t be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my previous room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this article to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing!

  4. Hi , I do believe this is an excellent blog. I stumbled upon it on Yahoo , i will come back once again. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and help other people.

  5. Hi , I do believe this is an excellent blog. I stumbled upon it on Yahoo , i will come back once again. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and help other people.

  6. Those are yours alright! . We at least need to get these people stealing images to start blogging! They probably just did a image search and grabbed them. They look good though!

  7. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back frequently!

  8. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, fantastic blog!

  9. Ihr digitaler Lizenzanbieter ist Softhier.com. Kaufen Sie Windows 10 Pro- und Windows 11-Betriebssystemlizenzen zu erschwinglichen Preisen. Sie können auch Office 2019 Pro und andere Lizenzschlüssel erwerben.

  10. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you create this website yourself? Plz reply back as I’m looking to create my own blog and would like to know wheere u got this from. thanks

  11. Forget about spam and advertising mailings.Keep your real inbox clean and secure. 10 Minute Mail provides temporary, secure, anonymous, free, disposable email address for 10 minutes.

  12. ip adresleri kullanıcıların kullanarak internette gezinebilmelerine imkan tanıyan ve numaralardan meydana gelen , internet servis sağlayıcısı tarafından sağlanan bir hizmettir.İp adresinin takibi çok kolaydır.Bu yüzden VPN , proxy ve dns değiştirme gibi yöntemleri sizlere öneriyoruz.0 güvenli hale gelmeyeceksiniz ancak takiniz zorlaşacaktır.VPN hizmetleri ücretli yada ücretsiz 3. taraflar tarafından sağlandığı için güvenli sayılmazsınız ve bu hizmet ile birlikte başka sitelere giriş yaptığınız şifreler görülebilir giriş yaptığınız sitelerin bir listesi yada aktiviteleriniz başkaları tarafından görülebilir.

  13. Nefis yemek tarifleri pratik yemek tarifleri hamur işi poğaça börek pasta kek tarifleriyle yemek tarifleri sitemize binlerce yemek tarifi burada. – Yemek Tarifleri Sitesi

  14. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this blog. I am hoping the same high-grade blog post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own blog now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a good example of it.

  15. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this blog. I am hoping the same high-grade blog post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own blog now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a good example of it.

  16. Thanx for the effort, keep up the good work Great work, I am going to start a small Blog Engine course work using your site I hope you enjoy blogging with the popular BlogEngine.net.Thethoughts you express are really awesome. Hope you will right some more posts.

  17. Betpas online bahis siteleri arasında uzun yıllardır yer almakta olan bir marka olarak, kalitesini kanıtlamış bir bahis sitesidir. Kullanıcı dostu yaklaşımıyla .

  18. Betturkey, dünyanın çeşitli ülkelerinde fiziki casino işletmekte ve Avrupa’nın birçok ülkesinde spor bahisleri oynatan kurumsal bir şirkettir.

  19. Betturkey, dünyanın çeşitli ülkelerinde fiziki casino işletmekte ve Avrupa’nın birçok ülkesinde spor bahisleri oynatan kurumsal bir şirkettir.

  20. en sağlam doeda pornolar sitemizde yer almaktadır. Hiç bir hd pornoda canınızı sıkacak reklam yoktur pornoho farkıyla keyifli porno izlemeler.

  21. Those are yours alright! . We at least need to get these people stealing images to start blogging! They probably just did a image search and grabbed them. They look good though!

  22. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back frequently!

  23. Way cool, some valid points! I appreciate you making this article available, the rest of the site is also high quality. Have a fun.

  24. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this blog. I am hoping the same high-grade blog post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own blog now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a good example of it.!!!

  25. I’d have to examine with you here. Which is not one thing I usually do! I take pleasure in reading a post that may make folks think. Additionally, thanks for permitting me to comment!

  26. Thanx for the effort, keep up the good work Great work, I am going to start a small Blog Engine course work using your site I hope you enjoy blogging with the popular BlogEngine.net.Thethoughts you express are really awesome. Hope you will right some more posts.

  27. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back frequently!

  28. Nice blog here! Additionally your website loads up very fast! What web host are you the usage of? Can I am getting your associate link on your host? I wish my website loaded up as quickly as yours lol!!

  29. It is rare to discover a specialist in whom you might have some faith. In the world these days, nobody genuinely cares about showing others exactly how in this issue. How fortunate I am to have now found such a wonderful website as this. It is people like you that make a genuine difference currently through the suggestions they discuss.!!

  30. Betist, bahisçilerin tüm spor etkinliklerine bahis yapmalarına, favori takımlarını desteklemelerine veya nakit ödüller kazanmalarına olanak tanıyan yeni bir.

  31. Hi, just required you to know I he added your site to my Google bookmarks due to your layout. But seriously, I believe your internet site has 1 in the freshest theme I??ve came across. It extremely helps make reading your blog significantly easier.>>>>

  32. Jokerbet giriş yapamıyorsanız güncel adresi sitemiz üzerinden en kısa sürede yayınlanacaktır. Jokerbet sitesinde bedava deneme bonusu kampanyası mevcut değildir …

  33. Nerobet güncel giriş adresi ve nerobet bahis sitesi hakkında merak edilenleri sitemizden bulabilirsiniz. Nerobet ile kazanmanın keyfini yaşayın!

  34. Goldenbahis bahis sitesi güncel bilgiler sitede yayınlanmaktadır. Goldenbahis giriş adresi bilgilerini tüm ayrıntıları ile siteden takip edebilirsiniz.

  35. Hi, just required you to know I he added your site to my Google bookmarks due to your layout. But seriously, I believe your internet site has 1 in the freshest theme I??ve came across. It extremely helps make reading your blog significantly easier……!:

  36. Simply desire to say your article is as amazing. The clarity to your publish is simply great and i can think you are an expert in this subject. Well along with your permission allow me to snatch your RSS feed to stay updated with drawing close post. Thank you one million and please continue the rewarding work.|…

  37. I would like to thnkx for the efforts you have put in writing this blog. I am hoping the same high-grade blog post from you in the upcoming as well. In fact your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my own blog now. Really the blogging is spreading its wings quickly. Your write up is a good example of it.

  38. Thanks for another informative site. The place else may just I am getting that type of info written in such an ideal way? I’ve a project that I am just now operating on, and I’ve been at the look out for such information..!

  39. Having read this I thought it was very informative. I appreciate you taking the time and effort to put this article together. I once again find myself spending way to much time both reading and commenting. But so what, it was still worth it!

  40. Hi, just required you to know I he added your site to my Google bookmarks due to your layout. But seriously, I believe your internet site has 1 in the freshest theme I??ve came across. It extremely helps make reading your blog significantly easier.

  41. Canlı bahis siteleri yeni yılda hem sayıca artmış hem de hizmetleri genişlemiştir. Başlarda sadece bahisler olan siteler üzerinde zamanla canlı iddaa, casino

  42. Restbet giriş yapacak kullanıcıların tercih ettiği firma onaylı bir siteyiz. Öncelikle site adresinden bahsetmek gerekirsek 2015 yılında açılmış bir bahis ve

  43. Hi there! This post couldn’t be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my previous room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this article to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing!!……

  44. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, fantastic blog!

  45. Thanx for the effort, keep up the good work Great work, I am going to start a small Blog Engine course work using your site I hope you enjoy blogging with the popular BlogEngine.net.Thethoughts you express are really awesome. Hope you will right some more posts.

  46. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you create this website yourself? Plz reply back as I’m looking to create my own blog and would like to know wheere u got this from. thanks

  47. Hi there! This post couldn’t be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my previous room mate! He always kept talking about this. I will forward this article to him. Pretty sure he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing!

  48. Hi, just required you to know I he added your site to my Google bookmarks due to your layout. But seriously, I believe your internet site has 1 in the freshest theme I??ve came across. It extremely helps make reading your blog significantly easier.

  49. Betist, düzenleme kurumu tarafından sağlanan resmi bir lisansa sahip güvenilir bir casino platformudur. Şirket, 2017’den beri şaşırtıcı ve canlı spor bahis .

  50. Mariobet, en yüksek oranlar ile spor bahisleri ve canlı bahis yapabilir aynı zamanda canlı poker, canlı casino ve slot oyunlarına katılabilirsiniz.

  51. Türkiye’nin gerçek online canlı bahis ve casino sitesi. bahis.com giriş adreslerine ve bahis’in tüm detaylarına bahis.com üzerinden erişebilirsiniz

  52. Sahabet kullanıcıların siteye üye olurken doğru bilgi ve sürekli kontrolünde olan iletişim bilgilerini vermeleri böyle durumlarda çok büyük.

  53. Pokerklas, bahis sektörünün lisanslı firmalarından birisidir. Türkiye’deki yasalar gereği yurtdışı serverlar üzerinden hizmet sunan tüm bahis platformlarının …

  54. En hızlı yatırım çekim imkanı ile Jestbahis her zaman en önde! Ayrıcalıklı 7/24 Hizmet ve benzersiz bonus seçenekleri için sizleride bekleriz.

  55. Sitemiz üzerinden betist giriş adresine erişebilir ve hiçbir kesinti yaşamadan bahis ve casino oyunlarını denemenin keyfini yaşayabilirsiniz.

  56. Considering the difficulties many academicians face when trying to publish their work in English, the purpose of this article is to offer some suggestions to help them write and publish their research in English. Topics that are presented include: searching the literature for possible resources, writing the literature review section of the manuscript, deciding on statistical methods, writing the discussion section of the manuscript, selection of a journal to submit the manuscript, the process of contacting the editor, undertaking a revision based on reviewers’ feedback, and resubmitting the manuscript. Working with a mentor through a professional organization or collaborating with a colleague who is competent in English is discussed as alternative ways of achieving a publication in English. A flow chart summarizing the submission process, a sample letter to the editor during the initial submission, and another sample letter to the editor when resubmitting the manuscript are presented.

  57. Sahabet türkiye’de kısa sürede en başarılı canlı bahis alanında ün kazanmış sitelerden birisidir. Sahabet tv güncel adres giriş yapınız.

  58. Thanx for the effort, keep up the good work Great work, I am going to start a small Blog Engine course work using your site I hope you enjoy blogging with the popular

  59. Mariobet, en yüksek oranlar ile spor bahisleri ve canlı bahis yapabilir aynı zamanda canlı poker, canlı casino ve slot oyunlarına katılabilirsiniz.