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EL PRÓSPERO NEGOCIO DE ROBAR AYUDA HUMANITARIA Por el Dr. Adalberto C. Agozino

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Buenos Aires: Dr. Adalberto C. Agozino
Argentina

Desde hace décadas el Frente Polisario y Argelia saquean sistemáticamente la ayuda humanitaria que organizaciones internacionales envían para la población de los campamentos de Tindouf. Al menos cien millones de euros han sido desviados clandestinamente para financiar actividades políticas y el lujoso tren de vida de los altos mandos involucrados.

En las últimas dos décadas diversas organizaciones humanitarias y la prensa internacional (entre las que se cuentan Agence France Press -AFP-, la web EUtoday.net y la propia Alternative Press Agency) han estado denunciando los delitos de lesa humanidad vinculados al sistemático robo de ayuda humanitaria que lleva a cabo el Frente Polisario con la participación y complicidad del gobierno de Argelia.

A estas denuncias se han sumado organizaciones como la ONG Organización Acción Internacional para el Desarrollo en la Región de los Grandes Lagos (AIPD), con sede en Ginebra, la European Strategic Intelligence and Security Center (ESISC) y personalidades destacadas como Kristalina Georgieva, ex Comisaria Europea de Cooperación Internacional, la eurodiputada del partido democristiano alemán Ingeborg Grassie, presidenta de la Comisión de Presupuesto del Parlamento Europeo, el eurodiputado francés Nicolas Bay, el experto sueco Bjorn Hultin, asesor del Parlamento Europeo y Fateh Ahmed Ould Mohamed Fadel Ould Ali Salem, quien fuera conocido con el alias de “Ahmed Felipe”, antiguo miembro de la Dirección de Seguridad del Frente Polisario, entre otros.

Desde que se conocen las pruebas documentales recopiladas desde 2003 por la Oficina Antifraude de la Unión Europea (OLAF) y que tomaron forma en un informe fechado en 2007 y que misteriosamente se mantuvo ocultó hasta 2015, se sabe con certeza que los altos mandos del Frente Polisario con el apoyo de funcionarios argelinos desvían parte de los productos alimenticios y sanitarios enviados a cubrir las necesidades de la población marroquí retenida, desde hace más de cuarenta años, en los campamentos de Tindouf, en el sur de Argelia.

El procedimiento por el cual se apropiaban indebidamente de la ayuda humanitaria y su posterior comercialización por parte del Polisario y los responsables argelinos se implementaba de manera sistemática, organizada y de carácter mafioso durante años. El ilícito se iniciaba en el puerto de Orán, al norte de Argelia, donde desembarcaba la carga procedente del puerto español de Alicante. Allí la carga debía pagar un arancel aduanero del 5% que iba a parar al fisco argelino.

El trayecto entre el puerto de Orán y el campamento de Rabuni, al sur de Tindouf, que opera como centro de distribución, es efectuado exclusivamente por dos empresas de transporte argelinas que son las únicas autorizadas a ingresar a los campamentos. Los embarques son trasladados sin manifiestos de carga y en camiones que no están precintados. El traslado de las mercancías, que como máximo puede demandar cinco días, suele demorar hasta 48 días. Una vez en los campamentos, los habitantes no cuentan con “tarjetas de racionamiento” ni firman recibo alguno de ninguna forma por los productos efectivamente recibidos. Con lo cual resulta imposible saber, cuanta ayuda llega y que destino recibe en los campamentos.

Buena parte de la carga recibida en Rabuni termina en depósitos clandestinos en El Rachid, El Jazhouani, El Hafed, Tijara, en Khila y Mijik. Estos almacenes clandestinos se emplean también para ocultar parte de las mercancías extraídas de los almacenes oficiales a los efectos de luego solicitar a los donantes extranjeros una asistencia suplementaria.

Recordemos que tanto Argelia como el Frente Polisario impiden la visita de funcionarios de ACNUR -la Oficina de Naciones Unidas para los refugiados- y de miembros de las ongs humanitarias que donan ayuda a los campamentos, sin previo aviso.

Estos productos, que en general están envasados y etiquetados como “ayuda humanitaria no comercializable” son ilegalmente comercializados más tarde, a través de las mafias internacionales que controlan los tráficos ilícitos en el Sahel, en los mercados informales de Mauritania, Mali, Chad y Nigeria.

El desvío de ayuda humanitaria es posible porque los administradores de los campos, es decir, el frente Polisario y el Ejército de Argelia, informan de la existencia de un número mayor de pobladores de los que realmente existen para recibir un mayor volumen de productos de los que realmente necesitan.

Así, el Frente Polisario solicita ayuda humanitaria para 170.000 residentes en los campamentos, mientras que observadores independientes aseguran que la población estable en el lugar no supera las 90.000 personas.

Recordemos que el Frente Polisario se niega a la realización de un censo de la población radicada en los campamentos a la cual mantiene en la condición de “indocumentados”, condición que viene desde la ocupación colonial española. En 1974, los españoles  realizaron un censo muy precario y discutido, y se emitieron algunas tarjetas cartón blanco que oficiaban de documentos de identidad españoles.

En general se trata de miembros de tribus numerosas asentadas en una amplia zona geográfica que comprende el Sur de Marruecos y Argelia, el Norte de Mauritania, llegando incluso al Noreste de Mali. Es por ello, que Argelia intentó reforzar la población de los campos con habitantes de Mauritania a los que prometía dinero y ayuda si se trasladaban allí.

Las autoridades del Frente Polisario impiden a los residentes hablar con el personal de ACNUR o de la MINURSO (Misión de Naciones Unidas para la Realización del Referéndum en el Sáhara Occidental) sin la presencia de un funcionario de seguridad del grupo separatista.

Durante años, tanto Naciones Unidas, Unicef, la Medialuna Roja, Human Rights Wacht, la Agencia de Naciones Unidas para la Ayuda Humanitaria y Protección Civil (HECHO), , etc., se han negado a reducir sus embarques de ayuda humanitaria bajo el argumento de que el Frente Polisario seguiría “desviando” el mismo volumen de productos por lo cual la reducción solo afectaría a la población retenida que vería seriamente disminuidas sus raciones alimenticias.

En esta forma, estas organizaciones han financiado al Frente Polisario y a Argelia en la última década con al menos cien millones de euros (a razón de diez millones de euros por año) que contribuyeron a financiar las actividades internacionales de “propaganda y activismo” en los foros internacionales.

Todo ello sin contar con el robo de parte de estos embarques para beneficio personal de miembros corruptos del Ejército argelino y de las milicias polisarias que se enriquecen, al margen de la operación oficial de desvío de ayuda humanitaria, con el robo para enriquecimiento personal.

Es así como miembros corruptos del Frente Polisario han adquirido lujosas propiedades en Europa, especialmente en el sur de España, Canarias y las Islas Baleares. Funcionarios que solo pisan los campamentos de la hamada argelina para cumplir con conmemoraciones oficiales que no pueden eludir.

Este año, el problema se ha potenciado porque la parálisis de la economía mundial también ha impactado en el Norte de África. El comercio internacional de Argelia está en crisis por el descenso de los precios del petróleo y el gas. El Frente Polisario también ha visto reducidos sus ingresos por la suspensión de muchas de sus actividades internacionales de recaudación de fondos, como el turismo revolucionario, los festivales de solidaridad, el programa Vacaciones en Paz, etc.

Por lo cual la pandemia ha convertido al Frente Polisario en más dependiente del desvío de ayuda humanitaria al reducir o suprimir sus otras formas de financiamiento. Debido a ello los separatistas llevan a cabo intensas campañas de recaudación de fondos por internet y pedidos de insumos médicos para hacer frente a los problemas sanitarios que el Covid 19 ocasiona en los campamentos.

Lo cierto es que ningún observador internacional independiente ha podido constatar cuál es la real situación sanitaria en Tindouf. La única información disponible habla de al menos 250 casos confirmados y de que el Ejército argelino ha reforzado las medidas de seguridad en torno a los campamentos para que nadie salga o ingrese a los mismos. Incluso existen pruebas de que en algunos casos los soldados dispararon contra algunos pobladores que ignorando las advertencias intentaron dejar la zona.

Tampoco se ha podido constatar si la ayuda sanitaria proveniente de Europa realmente llegó a los campamentos y en qué porcentaje lo hizo.

El próspero negocio ilícito de robar ayuda humanitaria es una de las causas principales por las cuales el gobierno argelino y el Frente Polisario se oponen sistemáticamente a la Propuesta para la Negociación de un Estatuto de Autonomía de la Región del Sáhara presentado por el Reino de Marruecos como única alternativa justa y posible al conflicto del Sáhara.

Si los campamentos de Tindouf desaparecen, con ellos termina un próspero negocio ilegal que financia la dispendiosa vida de los funcionarios corruptos involucrados en el robo de ayuda humanitaria.

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